Data Mining & Process


Data mining is the extraction of interesting patterns from large data sets.


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Data Warehousing & 3 Tier Architecture Of Data Warehouse

Dataware house is generalization & consolidating way of data in multidimensional space.

Dataware house involves data cleaning, data integration & data transformation.

Watch the complete video for understanding DATA WAREHOUSING & Architecture.





Electronic Payment System ( EPS )

EPS is a process of digital payment in which the payment is done through online credit card, online e-cash systems, e-cheque/I-cheque or via smart cards.


This payment system requires security, acceptability, cost, anonymity, control & traceability.

For more detailed discussion watch this video till the end & like if you enjoy the discussion.


SLA & SLA Violation, Service Level Agreement

SLA is a written document which consists of the detailed terms and conditions and rules and regulations upon which service will be provided to the customers by the company.


For understanding SLA with more practical real-life examples watch this video till the end and get know each and everything about SLA & SLA Violations.

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E-Technologies For UGC NET Computer Science & Applications


E-Technology For UGC NET Computer Science & Applications



E-Technology is use of electronic media and communication devices to make the task done via internet with digitized medium to ease the manual efforts.

Here, in this lecture we have discussed about E-Commerce, History of e-commerce. types of e-commerce, B2C, B2B, C2C, P2P, M-Commerce, Applications of E-Commerce, Advantages, Disadvantages Of E-Commerce.

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SQL Queries Practice & Solutions

Solve following queries using aggregate functions for the table.

Table: sales (orderID OrderDate OrderPrice OrderQuantity CustomerName)


1.Count how many orders have made a customer with customer name of Smith.


2.Find the number of unique customers that have ordered from the store.


3.Find out total no. of items ordered by all the customers.


4.Find out the average number of items per order.


5.Find out the average order quantity for all orders with order price greater than 200.


6.Find out what was the minimum price paid for any of the orders.


7.Find out the highest order price from the given sales table.


8.List out unique customers name only from the table.


9.List out the name of the customers who have given an order in the month of DECEMBER.


10.Find out the total amount of money spent for each of the customers.


11. Select all unique customers, who have spent more than 1200 in the store.


Now I had updated my table and inserted more values in it.


12.Select all the customers that have ordered more than 5 items in total from all their orders.


13.Select all customers who have spent more than 1000, after 10/01/2005.


14.Select orders in increasing order of order price.


15 Select orders in decreasing order of order price.


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Important Linux Commands

Some of the important Linux commands are here to get pace up with Linux.



Basic Syntax Of Command.

useradd [options] username

  1. To add new user on Linux.
  2. Create a user with different home directory.
  3. Create a user with different user id.
  4. Create a user with different specific group id.
  5. Add a user to multiple groups.
  6. Add user login shell.


Basic Syntax Of Command.

After typing the batch command, the at> prompt is displayed.


Basic Syntax Of Command.

at 9:30 PM Tue

  1. at executes commands at a specified time.
  2. atrm deletes jobs, identified by their job number.
  3. atq lists the user’s pending jobs, unless the user is the superuser in that case, everybody’s jobs are listed. The format of the output lines job numberdatehouryearqueue, and username.



Basic Syntax Of Command.

 $ banner 'Hello!'
 Output Line is as:-

 #     #                                   ###
 #     #  ######  #       #        ####    ###
 #     #  #       #       #       #    #   ###
 #######  #####   #       #       #    #    #
 #     #  #       #       #       #    #
 #     #  #       #       #       #    #   ###
 #     #  ######  ######  ######   ####    ###


cat stands for “catenate.”

Basic syntax of cat is :-

cat mytext.txt

It reads data from files, and outputs their contents. It is the simplest way to display the contents of a file at the command line.

  1. To Copy A Text File.
  2. Append A Text File’s Contents To Another Text File.
  3. Incorporating Standard Input Into cat Output.


For change directory.

Basic Syntax:

$ cd /usr/local

  1. To change current directory to local.
  2. Move one directory to back.
  3. Move to users home directory.
  4. The cd command can be used to change into a sub directory, move back into the parent directory, move all the way back to the root directory or move to any given directory.


chmod ( Change Mode ) is used to change the permissions of files or directories.

Basic Syntax:

chmod options permission file name


To change the owner of group file.

Basic Syntax:

chown [OPTION]... [OWNER][:[GROUP]] FILE...


To clear the terminal screen.

Basic Syntax:



To copy a file and directory.

Basic Syntax:



copies files to and from archives.

cpio copies files from one directory tree to another.

Basic Syntax:

cpio {-o|--create} [-0acvABLV] [-C bytes] [-H format] [-M message] 
     [-O [[user@]host:]archive] [-F [[user@]host:]archive] 
     [--file=[[user@]host:]archive] [--format=format] 
     [--message=message][--null] [--reset-access-time] [--verbose] [--dot] 
     [--append] [--block-size=blocks] [--dereference] [--io-size=bytes] 
     [--rsh-command=command] [--help] [--version] < name-list [> archive]


Cut command in unix is used to select sections of text from each line of files.

Basic Syntax:

$ cut -c n [filename(s)]


Desk Calculator.

The desk calculator works with post-fix notation, rather like many HP Calculators. Basic arithmetic uses the standard + – / * symbols but entered after the digits.

Basic Syntax:



Data Duplicator.

To copy and converting data.

dd if=<source file name> of=<target file name> [Options]

Components Of Data Communication

Major Components Of Data Communication in Networking

There are five major components of the data communication in networking.

which are as follows:-

  • Message

  • Sender

  • Receiver

  • Medium

  • Protocol


  1. Message :- Actual data between the two devices or exchanged between Sender and Receiver.
  2. Sender :- Source of the data message.
  3. Receiver :- End unit of data communication.
  4. Medium :- Path chosen for the sending data over different mediums. like Optic Fiber, Coaxial Cables etc.
  5. Protocol :- Set of rules for the communication which is followed by sending message over different mediums.


SOP (Sum Of Products) & POS (Product Of Sums)

Sum Of Product, Product Of Sum, nSum Of Products & nProduct Of Sums are boolean expressions with multiple inputs.

1 (a AND b) OR (c AND d) It’s SOP

Ex. F = ab’ + ad + c’d + d’
2. (a OR b) AND (c OR d) It’s POS

Ex. F = (a+b’) . (a+d) . (c’+d) . (d’)


Sum of Product (SOP) Form

The sum-of-products (SOP) form is a method (or form) of simplifying the Boolean expressions of logic gates. In this SOP form of Boolean function representation, the variables are operated by AND (product) to form a product term and all these product terms are ORed (summed or added) together to get the final function.

A sum-of-products form can be formed by adding (or summing) two or more product terms using a Boolean addition operation. Here the product terms are defined by using the AND operation and the sum term is defined by using OR operation.

The sum-of-products form is also called as Disjunctive Normal Form as the product terms are ORed together and Disjunction operation is logical OR. Sum-of-products form is also called as Standard SOP.

SOP form representation is most suitable to use them in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays).

Product of Sums (POS) Form

The product of sums form is a method (or form) of simplifying the Boolean expressions of logic gates. In this POS form, all the variables are ORed, i.e. written as sums to form sum terms.

All these sum terms are ANDed (multiplied) together to get the product-of-sum form. This form is exactly opposite to the SOP form. So this can also be said as “Dual of SOP form”.

Here the sum terms are defined by using the OR operation and the product term is defined by using AND operation. When two or more sum terms are multiplied by a Boolean OR operation, the resultant output expression will be in the form of product-of-sums form or POS form.

The product-of-sums form is also called as Conjunctive Normal Form as the sum terms are ANDed together and Conjunction operation is logical AND. Product-of-sums form is also called as Standard POS.

1 (a AND b) OR (c AND d) It’s SOP
2. (a OR b) AND (c OR d) It’s POS

• In 1st Case,
AND is Followed By OR or
in digital logic, we can say like,
OR is Following AND Operations.


• In 2nd Case,

OR is Followed By AND or

in digital logic, we can say like,

AND is Following OR Operations.


Two dual canonical forms of any Boolean function are a “sum of minterms” and a “product of max terms.” The term “Sum of Products” or “SoP” is widely used for the canonical form that is a disjunction (OR) of minterms. It’s De Morgans Law is a “Product of Sums” or “PoS” for the canonical form that is a conjunction (AND) of max terms. These forms can be useful for the simplification of these functions, which is of great importance in the optimization of Boolean formulas in general and digital circuits in particular.